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Smoking Really Damaging in Real Time

Cigarette smoking is a well-established risk factor in the pathogenesis and progression of IHD, as well as myocardial infarction. 3-13 Smoking increases death from coronary artery disease by 70 percent.3

Furthermore, the excess risk of morbidity and mortality diminishes with cessation of smoking.4-6

Predictably, the benefits of cessation of smoking accrue even in advanced coronary artery disease following percutaneous coronary revascularization.6

Smoking causes norepinephrine and epinephrine release and results in other adrenergically mediated adverse hemodynamic and metabolic events.12

Even passive smoking impairs endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young adults.8

Cigarette smoke is a pro-oxidant in pregnant women regardless of antioxidant nutrient intake.9

In human subjects, cigarette smoking raises the pre-smoke nitric oxide-peroxynitrite ratio of 1:0.5 to a post-smoke ration as high 1:9.7

Rat alveolar macrophages challenged by cigarette smoke release nitric oxide and superoxides, which interact with each other to produce peroxynitrite.

Following two to three puffs of smoke, activated phagocytes continue to release nitric oxide and peroxynitrite for up to 30 minutes277 (Deliconstantinos 1994.)

Ethane and pentane are volatile alkanes produced from peroxidation of omega-3 fatty acids, and the breath levels of those compounds are used as indicators of oxidant stress. The breath ethane levels are higher in smokers than in nonsmokers.7 The intake of antioxidants such as vitamin C and E in RDA amounts does not reduce breath ethane levels.

How can the recognized role of tobacco smoking in the pathogenesis of CAD be explained by the hypothesis of AA oxidopathy? Smoking has well-established procoagulant and coronary vasoconstrictive effects.11-13

As discussed earlier, factors directly fan the oxidative coagulative fires within the circulating blood. Cigarette smoke generates an enormous number of free radicals and markedly increases plasma oxidizability.

As indicated earlier, both active and passive smoking impair endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy adults.8 There is a dose-related inverse relationship between the intensity of passive tobacco smoking and flow-mediated dilatation, indicating direct early arterial damage. Penn et at. reported a dose-dependent size increases of aortic lesions following exposure to 1,2 dimethylbenzene.7

We anticipated and verified by direct microscopic observations, the ability of tobacco smoke to inflict direct plasma and cell membrane injury.

To this purpose, we examined the immediate effects of free radical cascades generated by cigarette smoking on circulating blood in a volunteer who abstained from smoking for a period of 16 hours and then smoked three cigarettes in five minutes.

Blood condition before smoking on the left and after smoking on the right.

 

Click below for treatment that can help reduce the effect the effect of smoking and also good even you are still smoking.

 

References
1. Ali M. Oxidative coagulopaty. In: Syllabus of the Capital University of Integrative Medicine, Washington, D.C., 1997.

2. Ali M. Ascorbic acid reverses abnormal erythrocyte morphology in chronic fatigue syndrome. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990;94:515.273. Weintraub WS, Klein LW, Seelaus PA, et al. Importance of total life consumption of cigarettes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1985; 55:660-72.

3. Weintraub WS, Klein LW, Seelaus PA, et al. Importance of total life consumption of cigarettes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1985; 55:660-72.27

4. Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and health promotion. Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 years of progress: a report of the surgeon general: executive summary.

Importance of total life consumption of cigarettes as a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Am J Cardiol 1985; 55:660-72.274. Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and health promotion. Reducing the health consequences of smoking: 25 years of progress: a report of the surgeon general: executive summary. washington, D.C. Government Printing Office, 1989. (DHHS publication no. (CDC) 89:8411.) (ref for 70% reduction)

4. Waters D, Lesperance J, Gladstone P, et al. Effects of cigarette smoking on the angiographic evolution of coronary atherosclerosis: a canadian Coronary Atherosclerosis Intervention Trial (CCAIT) Substudy. Circulation 1996;94:614-21.

5. Ross R. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis—an update. N Eng J Med 1986;314:488-500.

6. Hasdai D, Garratt KN, Grill DE, et al. Effect of smoking status on the long-term outcome after successful percutaneous coronary revascularization. N Eng J Med 1997;336:755-61.

7. Penn A, Batastini G, Soloman J, et al. Dose-dependent size increases of aortic lesions following chronic exposure to 7,12 dimethylbenzene. Cancer research. 1981;41:588-92.

8. Celermajor DS, Adams MR, Clarkson P et al. Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in health young adults. N Eng J Med. 334:150-54; 1996

9. Schwarz KB, Cox J, Sharma S et al. Cigarette smoking is a pro-oxidant in pregnant women regardless of antioxidant nutrient intake. J Nutr Env Med 1995;5:225-34.

10. Folts JD, Bonebrake FC. The effects of cigarette smoking and nicotine on platelet thrombus formation in stenosed dog coronary arteries: Inhibition with phentolamine. Circulation 1982;65:465-70

11. Grines CL, Topol EJ, O’Niell WW, et al. Effect of cigarette smoking on outcome after thrombolytic therapy for myocardial infacrtion. 1995;91:298-303.

12. Cryer PE, Haymond MW, Santiago JV, Shah SD. Norepinephrine and epinephrine release and adrenergic mediation of smoking-associated hemodyhamic and metabolic events. N Engl J Med 1976;295:573.

13. Goldsmith JR. Carbon monoxide and coronary heart disease. Ann Intern Med 1969;71:199.

 

Vitamin D – Why this Vitamin (actually a hormone) is The Master Key to Optimal Health

“Why we should be under sunshine more”

There are many newly discovered benefits of the “sunshine vitamin” published on a regular basis these days. There were 33,000 published (and thousands of new publication every year) papers on benefits of vitamin D.

Vitamin D Dose Recommendations
Age Dosage
Below 5 35 units per pound per day
Age 5 – 10 2500 units
Adults 5000 units
Pregnant Women 5000 units
Blood level is so wide and the so called normal is lumpsum of those who very sick in 95% of population. The normal level is not necessary optimum level for health. Furthermore, there is no way to know if the above recommendations are correct. The ONLY way to know is to test your blood. You might need 4-5 times the amount recommended above. Ideally your blood level of 25-OH-D should be 60ng/ml.

 

What Makes Vitamin D so Special?

First, it’s important to realize that vitamin D is not “just a vitamin,” but rather the only known substrate for a potent, pleiotropic (meaning it produces multiple effects), repair and maintenance steroid hormone that serves multiple gene-regulatory functions in your body.

Each cell in your body has its own DNA library that contains information needed to deal with virtually every kind of stimulus it may encounter, and the master key to enter this library is activated vitamin D.

For example, memory ductile cells in the breast need vitamin D to access DNA that enables the response to estrogen.

So naturally, without sufficient amounts of vitamin D, your cells cannot access their DNA libraries and their functions are thereby impaired.

This is why vitamin D functions in so many different tissues, and affects such a large number of different diseases and health conditions. So far, scientists have found about 3,000 genes that are upregulated by vitamin D.

Receptors that respond to the vitamin have been found in almost every type of human cell, from your brain to your bones. And researchers keep finding health benefits from vitamin D in virtually every area they look.

Vitamin D Deficiency make you unhealthy

Just one example of an important gene that vitamin D up-regulates is your ability to fight infections, including the flu. It produces over 200 anti microbial peptides, the most important of which is cathelicidin, a naturally occurring broad-spectrum antibiotic.

At least five studies show an inverse association between lower respiratory tract infections and 25(OH)D levels.  That is, the higher your vitamin D level, the lower your risk of contracting colds, flu, and other respiratory tract infections:

  1.   A 2007 studysuggests higher vitamin D status enhances your immunity to microbial infections. They found that subjects with vitamin D deficiency had significantly more days of absence from work due to respiratory infection than did control subjects.
  2.   A 2009 studyon vitamin D deficiency in newborns with acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) confirmed a strong, positive correlation between newborns’ and mother’s vitamin D levels. Over 87 percent of all newborns and over 67 percent of all mothers had vitamin D levels lower than 20 ng/ml, which is a severe deficiency state. (USA data)

Researchers recommend that all mothers’ optimize their vitamin D levels during pregnancy, especially in the winter months, to safeguard their baby’s health.

  1. A 2009 analysis of the Third National Health andNutrition Examination Surveyexamined the association between vitamin D levels and recent upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in nearly 19,000 subjects over the age of 12.

Recent URTI was reported by:

  • 17 percent of participants with vitamin D levels of 30ng/ml or higher
  • 20 percent of participants with vitamin D levels between 10-30 ng/ml.
  • 24 percent of participants with vitamin D levels below 10ng/ml

The positive correlation between lower vitamin D levels and increased risk of URTI was even stronger inindividuals with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

  1.   Another 2009 reportin the journal Pediatric Research stated that infants and children appear more susceptible to viral rather than bacterial infections when deficient in vitamin D. And that, based on the available evidence showing a strong connection between vitamin D, infections, and immune function in children, vitamin D supplementation may be a valuable therapy in pediatric medicine.

Optimizing your vitamin D levels can also help you to prevent as many as 16 different types of cancer including pancreatic, lung, breast, ovarian, prostate, and colon cancers.

But perhaps most important to note is that vitamin D can lower your risk of dying from any cause, according to a new European meta-analysis published in the Archives of Internal Medicine in 2007.

Another group of researchers have calculated that simply increasing levels of vitamin D3 could prevent diseases that claim nearly 1 million lives throughout the world each year, as the widespread vitamin D deficiency seen today is now thought to fuel an astonishingly diverse array of common chronic diseases, such as:

 Cancer  Hypertension  Heart disease
 Autism  Obesity  Rheumatoid arthritis
 Diabetes 1 and 2  Multiple Sclerosis  Crohn’s disease
 Cold & Flu  Inflammatory Bowel Disease  Tuberculosis
 Septicemia  Signs of aging  Dementia
 Eczema & Psoriasis  Insomnia  Hearing loss
 Muscle pain  Cavities  Periodontal disease
 Osteoporosis  Macular degeneration  Reduced C-section risk
 Pre eclampsia  Seizures  Infertility
 Asthma  Cystic fibrosis  Migraines
 Depression  Alzheimer’s disease  Schizophrenia

 

It’s absolutely tragic that dermatologists and sunscreen manufacturers have done such a thorough job of scaring people out of the sun – your optimal source for natural vitamin D. I believe this is one of the major influences that has contributed to the vitamin D epidemic we’re now facing is widespread use of UV blocker.

Omega 3 for Liver and Brain

Omega 3 helps fatty liver problem

The journal PLoS One published the results of research on January 24 2014, which indicates that the benefits of omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to the liver disease.

Researchers at Oregon State University studied the effects of omega 3 in the livers of mice in which nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) was induced by a standard Western diet consumed for 16 weeks.

Some of the animals received the omega-3 PUFA EPA and/or DHA along with the diet and others received olive oil.

Supplementation with DHA was more effective than EPA at normalizing NASH gene expression markers and other factors altered by the Western diet.

The team found that DHA affected all major metabolic pathways to exert a protective effect against the diet’s ability to induce the disease. The researchers observed changes in vitamin, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, as well as protein function.

“We were shocked to find so many biological pathways being affected by omega-3 fatty acids,” remarked study coauthor Donald Jump, who is a professor at the Oregon State University College of Public Health and Human Sciences. “Most studies on these nutrients find effects on lipid metabolism and inflammation. Our metabolomics (assess the metabolites) analysis indicates that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids extend beyond that, and include carbohydrate, amino acid and vitamin metabolism.”

“Most studies on these nutrients find effects on lipid metabolism and inflammation. Our metabolomics (assess the metabolites) analysis indicates that the effects of omega-3 fatty acids extend beyond that, and include carbohydrate, amino acid and vitamin metabolism.”

“A lot of work has been done on fatty liver disease, and we are just beginning to explore the potential for DHA in preventing or slowing disease progression,” Dr Jump noted.

“Fish oils, a common supplement used to provide omega-3, are also not prescribed to regulate blood glucose levels in diabetic patients,” he added. “But our studies suggest that DHA may reduce the formation of harmful glucose metabolites linked to diabetic complications.”

Higher omega-3 levels equal less brain shrinkage with age hence maintain better cognitive function

January 22 2014. A report published online on January 22, 2014 in the journal Neurology® reveals an association between higher levels of the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and greater brain volume in older age.

“These higher levels of fatty acids can be achieved through diet and the use of supplements, and the results suggest that the effect on brain volume is the equivalent of delaying the normal loss of brain cells that comes with aging by one to two years,” commented lead author James V. Pottala, PhD, of the University of South Dakota in Sioux Falls.

The study included 1,111 participants in the Women’s Health Initiative Memory Study, which was a subset study of subjects enrolled in the Women’s Health Initiative. Subjects were between the ages of 65 to 80 years upon enrollment. Blood samples were analyzed for red blood cell fatty acid levels and magnetic resonance imaging was conducted a median of eight years later to evaluate brain volume.

Having a higher blood level of EPA combined with DHA was associated with larger total brain volume and hippocampal volume at the time of the MRI scans. (The hippocampus is an area of the brain involved with learning.) No association with ischemic lesion volumes and omega-3 fatty acids was observed.

“In this cohort of postmenopausal women, lower red blood cell EPA plus DHA levels correlated with smaller total and hippocampal brain volumes, the former being an indication of cognitive aging and the latter being centrally involved with Alzheimer’s disease pathology,” Dr Pottala and his colleagues conclude. “This study thus adds to the growing literature suggesting that higher omega-3 fatty acid tissue levels, which can be achieved by dietary changes, may hold promise for delaying cognitive aging and/or dementia.”

Reference
Adopted from Life Extension Magazine

PSA screening Controversial

Since widespread screening for prostate-specific antigen (PSA) testing was initiated in the 1990s, mortality rates for prostate cancer have plummeted. That occurred because a rising PSA can serve as an early cancer detection tool and better enables curative treatment.

In 2012, the United States Preventive Services Task Force made a proclamation against PSA screening for most men.

Life Extension® vehemently objected and wrote scathing rebuttals describing the preventable deaths from prostate cancer that would occur if aging men were dissuaded from having annual PSA blood tests.

On April 11, 2017, the United States Preventive Services Task Force released a draft statement that revised their 2012 recommendation against the use of prostate-specific antigen as a screening blood test for prostate cancer. This group now says PSA screening’s benefits outweigh the risks for men between the ages of 55–69 years and point out the option of “watchful waiting” as a factor in changing their position.

While this is a welcome turnaround, it writes off men once they reach age 70 and fails to acknowledge prostate cancer risk in men starting at age 40.

It also uses the term “watchful waiting” which is now obsolete because there is a better option called “active surveillance” whereby a man with a rising PSA can initiate dietary and lifestyle changes to lower his PSA.

As it relates to the “average” man over age 70, the United States Preventive Services Task Force may be correct in as much as the majority of Americans who fail to proactively protect their health are usually in bad shape around age 70. That means they are likely to die of something else before their prostate cancer becomes clinically relevant.

Nevertheless more than 40,000 new prostate cancer diagnose every year and 28,000 died of prostate cancer every year.

PSA screening is thus an essential component of your longevity program because prostate cancer is outrageously prevalent in men as they mature past 55 years.

Altering one’s diet can enable PSA levels to decline and also markedly reduce prostate cancer incidence. PSA blood tests are widely available and we encourage all men over age 40 to have them done annually.

 

References
Life Extension

Cardiovascular risk of excess oestrogen in men

Sudden death and thrombosis (blood clotting)

Estrogen dominant in women can cause thirty problems. There can be two ways, normal estrogen but too low progesterone or really too high estrogen. Here we zoom into high estrogen with or without low testosterone in men.

Numerous studies link low testosterone (and excess estradiol) with increased heart attack and stroke risk. Testosterone is intimately involved in the reverse cholesterol transport process, which removes cholesterol from the arterial wall by HDL.

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Vitamin C for cancer: An “A” for C

Vitamin C is potent adjunct cancer treatment that can target and kill cancer stem cells, and more.

Cancer is the second leading cause of death and disease worldwide, accounting for almost 9 million deaths in 2015, according to the World Health Organization (WHO).

In the United States, the National Cancer Institute (NCI) estimate that almost 40 percent of U.S. men and women will have developed cancer at one point during their lives.

There are various treatment options available for cancer, like chemotherapy but they are not always effective; most of them are toxic. Furthermore, cancer is immune dysfunction whereas chemotherapy is immune suppression.

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The Danger of Adrenal Fatigue or Adrenal Exhaustion

Many people suffer in silence low functioning adrenal gland due to chronic stress. Our body has two adrenal glands, located just above each of your kidneys. Adrenal gland produces more than 100 hormones and it is control partly from the hypothalamus in the brain.

Your hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal (HPA) axis is the system responsible for one of the most important functions in your body — the management of stress. This includes stress from every conceivable source, be it injury or disease, work or relationship problems.

Exposure to chronic stress from overwork, chronic inflammation or long-term illness, for example, can result in HPA axis dysfunction, also referred to as “adrenal fatigue” or “adrenal exhaustion.” In reaction to mental stress, adrenal glands produce cortisol hormones. Chronic stressful life can taxed the adrenal gland and lose their ability to make cortisol due to overwork.

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Why Himalayan Salt is one of the best for Health

Salts are not the same.  Himalayan salt is a salt unlike any others, for flavor, purity, and nutritional value. What else makes Himalayan salt so unique as a healthy salt alternative?

What’s the Difference between Table Salt, Sea Salt and Himalayan Salt?

Sometimes people assume that sea salt is the same thing as Himalayan salt. While they both are table salt alternatives, there’s a big difference between the two.

Although Himalayan salt may have started out as a sea salt, its similarity to sea salt ends there. While Himalayan salt comes from ancient sea salt beds found at high elevations, sea salt is produced through the evaporation of water from either the ocean or from saltwater lakes.

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Cruciferous Vegetables helpful against prostate cancer

In recently released studies, three phytochemicals derived from cruciferous vegetables(such as broccoli) have shown promise in inhibiting prostate cancer in experimental models.2,3 Because their chemical names are challenging— indole-3-carbinol, 3,3’-diindolylmethane, and phenethyl isothiocyanate—they are better known as I3C, DIM, and PEITC, respectively.
Examples of Cruciferous Vegetables are:

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Wound Treatment With Honey

It takes about 60,000 bees, collectively traveling up to 88,000 kilometers and visiting more than 2 million flowers, to gather enough nectar to make half kilogram of honey.

Honey is truly a remarkable substance, with many health benefits when used in moderation. This blend of sugar, trace enzymes, minerals, vitamins, and amino acids is quite unlike any other sweetener on the planet.

Honey is fascinating

Away from air and water, honey can be stored indefinitely, nothing can grow in honey –  bacteria or fungus.

There are hundreds of kind of honey, each with a unique color and flavor that is dependent upon the nectar source. For example, lighter colored honey, smell and taste of pineapple when main flower is from pineapple while darker-colored honeys from the jungle of Malaysia. Manuka honey carry the smell and taste from manuka tree.

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What is a Telomere?

Telomeres are an essential part of human cells that affect how our cells age.

 

Telomeres are the caps at the end of each strand of DNA that protect our chromosomes, like the plastic tips at the end of shoelaces.

Without the coating, DNA strands become damaged and our cells can’t do their job.

Telomeres protect the vital information in our DNA.

telomere1-cell division

DNA makes up all of the cells in our body. And every organ in our body (skin, liver, heart, etc.) is made up of cells and each cell with nucleus there is DNA as a “software”. So, telomeres are vital to our health that protect the DNA.

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TACT Study by NIH on EDTA Chelation Therapy

EDTA Chelation Therapy Proves Highly Significant Benefits Up to 50% prevention of recurrent heart attacks and 43 percent reduction in death rate from all causes.

1

At the American Heart Association meeting in Los Angeles on November 4, 2012, Dr. Gervasio Lamas, principal investigator, presented results of the NIH-sponsored Trial to Assess Chelation Therapy (TACT). This randomized, placebo-controlled study of 1,708 patients showed  that intravenous disodium EDTA chelation therapy decreased subsequent cardiac events with statistical significance, when compared to a control group of similar patients who received placebo.

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Startling Findings About Vitamin D dose

References: Life Extension analysis on vitamin D level in 13,000 members

No other nutrient, drug, or hormone has gained more scientific credibility than vitamin D. Insufficient vitamin D is linked to virtually every age-related disorder including cancer, vascular disease, and chronic inflammation. Active vitamin D involves in about 3,000 gene expression.

Under Life extension test program more than 13,000 had their vitamin D level checked, the results from these tests represent a never-before-published data about achieved vitamin D blood levels in a large group of dedicated supplement users.

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Exercise Reduces Your Cancer Risk

Many people view exercise as a tool for weight loss, muscle building, and improving cardiovascular health, but it does much more than that. Exercise is like a whole-body health tonic.

It reduces your risk of many different chronic diseases including – cancer. For starters, exercise drives your insulin levels down, and controlling insulin levels is one of the most powerful ways to reduce your cancer risk. It’s also been suggested that apoptosis (programmed cell death) is triggered by exercise, causing cancer cells to die.

Exercise also improves the circulation of immune cells in your blood. The better these cells circulate, the more efficient your immune system is at defending itself against infections and diseases like cancer.

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Catecholamines

Noradrenaline and adrenaline are catecholamines that play major roles in regulation of the ‘inner world’ of the body by the brain. Noradrenaline (synonymous with norepinephrine), the main neurotransmitter of the sympathetic nervous system, is responsible for tonic and reflexive changes in cardiovascular tone. Adrenaline is a key determinant of responses to metabolic or global challenges to homeostasis, such as glucoprivation(increases expression of neuropeptide Y mRNA in hindbrain neurons that innervate the hypothalamus) and of manifestations of emotional distress. In contrast with the view that the sympathetic nervous and adrenomedullary hormonal systems function as a unit (the ‘sympathoadrenal system’) to maintain homeostasis in emergencies, across a variety of situations, adrenaline responses are more closely linked to responses of the hypothalamic?pituitary?adrenocortical system than of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic noradrenergic system is active even when the individual is at rest and maintains tonic levels of cardiovascular performance. Adrenoceptors in the membranes of effector cells determine the physiological and metabolic effects of catecholamines.

Panic Disorder

Panic disorder is an anxiety disorder characterized by recurring panic attacks, causing a series of intense episodes of extreme anxiety during panic attacks. It may also include significant behavioral changes lasting at least a month and of ongoing worry about the implications or concern about having other attacks.

Stress Ruin Your Life and Invite Death

Some stress is good for us, but when it is prolonged, stress is very bad for our health. We are simply not put together to deal with the kind of stressors that modern life often imposes on us. Imagine, while driving when there is a serious motor-vehicle accident right in-front of you, what happen to you? Your heart beat very fast, you feel light-headedness, your legs trembling, your eyes dilated. These are acute stress reaction and the effects are due to the release of catecholamines, a neurotransmitter. Noradrenaline and adrenaline are catecholamines that play major roles in regulation of the ‘inner world’ of the body by the brain

Now, when you are facing with life stressors and/or lifestyles stressors there are chronic persistent, sub-clinical (you are not aware) but there is high persistent level of catecholamines release and the release or another hormone by adrenal gland so called cortisol. Early morning blood or saliva test may indicate the effect of chronic stress on DHEA and Cortisol balance. Excess cortisol, a hormone critical in managing fat storage and energy use in the human body. Cortisol is known to increase appetite and may encourage cravings for sugary or fatty foods.

Stress is a bigger problem than you think

The prominent psychologist Richard Lazarus offers a similar definition:

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Toxic Food Supply “Daily Poison to ourselves”

Our Daily Poison

We exposed ourselves to materials foreign to our system. They are unwanted to our physiological systems as well as dangerous. Materials can be group into the three main categories.

  • Endocrine-disrupting chemicals like phthalates and bisphenol-A (BPA)
  • Agricultural chemicals
  • Artificial sweeteners like aspartame and other food additives

Interactions between chemicals that render the sum total more harmful than the risks associated with any given chemical in isolation.

In this article we will highlight the endocrine-disruptors or xeno-hormones. The other two groups of chemical will be covered in other series of articles. The main hormone disruptors or hormone mimicking chemicals are plastics or plasticizers, mainly ethylene in polyethylene of plastics. They are mainly estrogen mimicking chemical by disrupting the estrogen receptors(site for interaction between hormone and cell on the surface of a cell). Easily understandable effects are breast cancer, fibroid and breast lump (non-cancer growth) whereas in men associated with prostate problem including prostate cancer. Not only that, there are so many other manifestation of xeno-estrogen.

The effects on women are as follows:

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